Asarum canadense

Family:Aristolochiaceae
Species:Asarum canadense L.
Common Name:wild ginger, asarabacca
Habitat:Slopes and bases of slopes in rich mesic forests with deep or calcareous soils and occasionally somewhat drier forests over limestone.
Associated Ecological Communities:**
Growth Habit:Forb/herb
Duration:Perennial
Category:Vascular
Plant Notes:**
Taxonomic Notes:A few taxa have been described within Asarum canadense including A. c. var. acuminatum, A. c. var. reflexum, and A. c. var. ambiguum. Some of these have been recognized at the specific level. Much of the variation noted in these taxa is related to the position and shape of the sepals. Asarum c. var. reflexum has calyx lobes reflexed and acute or mucronate tipped. Asarum c. var. ambiguum has the calyx lobes reflexed (or according to Fernald (1950) "ascending to only tardily reflexing") and acuminate to caudate tipped. Asarum c. var. acuminatum has the calyx lobes spreading and caudate tipped. Asarum c. var. canadense has the calyx lobes spreading and acuminate. Other differences have been noted as well. Fernald (1950), states that these varieties freely intergrade. A modern study is needed to determine if any of these taxa should be recognized. In the mean time, we follow Whittemore et al. (1997) in recognizing just one variable Asarum canadense.
Status:Native, S5 (State Rank), G5 (Global Rank)
References:Mitchell and Beal 1979, Whittemore et al. 1997

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

Division Equisetophyta
Class Equisetopsida
Sub Class Magnoliidae
Order Piperales
FamilyAristolochiaceae
Genus Asarum
Species Asarum canadense L. - wild ginger, asarabacca

Citation

Citation Asarum canadense Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 442. 1753.
Basionym: **
Type: **

** Not applicable or data not available.

Source

CountyYearHerbariaNotesSubmission Info
Albany  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Albany1990 NYS    
Albany  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. reflexum
   
Albany  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. acuminatum
   
Albany1927 BH
BH 000 009 065
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Albany1949 BH
BH 000 009 064
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Albany1902 BKL
BKL00035284
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Allegany  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Bronx1895 CONN    
Bronx1896 CONN    
Bronx1897 NY
Barcode ID: 468338
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum reflexum
   
Bronx  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Bronx1995 BH
BH 000 009 062
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Bronx  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. reflexum
   
Bronx1896 BUF
Herbarium # 9579
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Bronx1966 BKL
BKL00035266
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Bronx1995 BKL
BKL00035275
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Bronx1891 BKL
BKL00035271
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Bronx1891 BKL
BKL00035276
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Bronx2004 BKL
BKL00026110
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Bronx1994 BKL
BKL00035268
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Cattaraugus1972 BUF
Herbarium # 67995
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Cattaraugus1958 BH
BH 000 009 073
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Cattaraugus1977 BUF
Herbarium # 58194
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Cattaraugus  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. reflexum
   
Cattaraugus  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. acuminatum
   
Cattaraugus  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Cayuga  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Cayuga  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. acuminatum
   
Cayuga1919 BH
BH 000 030 004
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Chautauqua1993 BH
BH 000 009 075
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Chautauqua1991 NYS    
Chautauqua1993 NYS    
Chemung1995 NYS    
Chemung  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. acuminatum
   
Chemung1935 BH
BH 000 030 005
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Chenango  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Clinton  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Clinton  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. acuminatum
   
Columbia  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Cortland1954 BH
BH 000 030 003
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Delaware  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Delaware1976 BH
BH 000 009 066
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Delaware1906 BKL
BKL00035265
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Dutchess1996 BKL
BKL00007053
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Dutchess1869 BH
BH 000 009 063
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Dutchess  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Dutchess1992 NYS    
Erie  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Erie  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. acuminatum
   
Erie1986 BUF
Herbarium # 67994
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Erie1976 BUF
Herbarium # 66644
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Erie1976 BUF
Herbarium # 67998
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Erie  BUF
Herbarium # 66668
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Erie2001 BUF
Herbarium # 77469
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Erie1989 BUF
Herbarium # 66399
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Erie1930 BH
BH 000 009 074
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Erie1947 BUF
Herbarium # 67997
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Erie1931 BUF
Herbarium # 68003
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Erie1930 BUF
Herbarium # 66646
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Erie1930 BUF
Herbarium # 66647
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Erie1930 BUF
Herbarium # 66649
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Erie1930 BUF
Herbarium # 66651
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Erie1923 BUF
Herbarium # 66677
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Erie1921 BUF
Herbarium # 68000
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Erie1895 BUF
Herbarium # 66669
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Erie1901 BUF
Herbarium # 66661
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Erie1898 BUF
Herbarium # 9581
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Erie1898 BUF
Herbarium # 66659
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Erie1898 BUF
Herbarium # 66662
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Erie1891 BUF
Herbarium # 66660
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Erie1891 BUF
Herbarium # 66673
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Erie1888 BUF
Herbarium # 66676
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Erie1885 BUF
Herbarium # 66665
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Erie1881 BUF
Herbarium # 66653
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Essex  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. acuminatum
   
Essex  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Fulton2007 NYS
15
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/22/2009 - Donna Vogler
Genesee1945 BH
BH 000 009 076
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Genesee1974 BUF
Herbarium # 68001
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Genesee1891 BUF
Herbarium # 66656
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Genesee1918 BUF
Herbarium # 66663
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Genesee1924 BUF
Herbarium # 66652
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Genesee1930 BUF
Herbarium # 66648
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Genesee  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Genesee  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. acuminatum
   
Greene  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Greene1989 NYS    
Greene1932 BKL
BKL00035278
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Herkimer2011 SUCO
9616
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  6/28/2013 - Connie Tedesco
Jefferson  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Jefferson  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. acuminatum
   
Lewis  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. acuminatum
   
Lewis  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Lewis1992 NYS    
Livingston  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Livingston1967 NYS    
Livingston1917 BH
BH 000 009 079
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Livingston  BUF
Herbarium # 66655
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Madison1918 BH
BH 000 009 082
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Madison  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Madison  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. acuminatum
   
Monroe  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. acuminatum
   
Monroe  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Monroe1930 BH
BH 000 009 081
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Montgomery  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Montgomery1933 BH
BH 000 009 067
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Nassau1970 OBPF
Log_num: 11828
   
Niagara1895 BH
BH 000 009 077
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Niagara1984 BUF
Herbarium # 66643
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Niagara1983 BUF
Herbarium # 67999
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Niagara1987 BUF
Herbarium # 55458
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Niagara1986 BUF
Herbarium # 55991
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Niagara1986 BUF
Herbarium # 68002
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Niagara1999 BUF
Herbarium # 76886
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Niagara1991 BUF
Herbarium # 74043
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Niagara1894 BUF
Herbarium # 66654
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Niagara1895 BUF
Herbarium # 66664
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Niagara1888 BUF
Herbarium # 66671
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Oneida  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Oneida  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. acuminatum
   
Onondaga  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. acuminatum
   
Onondaga1958 CONN    
Onondaga1959 CONN    
Onondaga  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Onondaga1923 BH
BH 000 009 083
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Ontario1915 BH
BH 000 009 084
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Orange  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Orange1990 NYS    
Orange2004 BKL
BKL00033763
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Orange2002 BKL
BKL00021145
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Orange1991 BKL
BKL00029189
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Orange1990 BKL
BKL00029188
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Orange1990 BKL
BKL00029187
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Orange1999 BKL
BKL00016938
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Orleans1897 BH
BH 000 009 080
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Oswego  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Otsego2005 SUCO Town of Burlington  
Putnam  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Queens  NYFA_1990    
Queens  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. reflexum
   
Queens  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. acuminatum
   
Queens1921 BKL
BKL00035264
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Queens1885 BKL
BKL00035263
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Rensselaer  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. acuminatum
   
Rensselaer1852 BH
BH 000 009 068
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Rensselaer  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Rensselaer1997 NYS    
Richmond1888 BKL
BKL00035286
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Rockland  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Rockland1990 NYS    
Rockland1887 BKL
BKL00035279
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Saratoga  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Saratoga1942 BH
BH 000 009 069
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Schenectady  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Schoharie  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Seneca  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. acuminatum
   
Seneca1915 BH
BH 000 030 001
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
St. Lawrence1914 BKL
BKL00035281
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
St. Lawrence  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. acuminatum
   
St. Lawrence1914 BH
BH 000 009 072
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
St. Lawrence  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
St. Lawrence1992 NYS    
Sullivan  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Sullivan1924 BH
BH 000 009 071
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Sullivan1939 BH
BH 000 009 070
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Sullivan1939 BKL
BKL00035280
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Tompkins1920 BKL
BKL00036016
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Tompkins1879 BUF
Herbarium # 66657
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  12/18/2009 - BUF (Ed Fuchs)
Tompkins  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. acuminatum
   
Tompkins  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Ulster  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Ulster2011 BKL
BKL00101973
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Ulster1901 BKL
BKL00036020
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Ulster1901 BKL
BKL00036022
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Warren1899 BKL
BKL00035277
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Warren  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. acuminatum
   
Washington  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Wayne  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Wayne  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. reflexum
   
Wayne1954 BH
BH 000 030 002
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  11/24/2009 - David Werier
Westchester1936 BKL
BKL00035269
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Westchester1888 BKL
BKL00035272
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Westchester1913 BKL
BKL00035282
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Westchester1889 BKL
BKL00035283
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Westchester  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. reflexum
   
Westchester  NYFA_1990
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense var. canadense
   
Westchester1883 BKL
BKL00035270
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Westchester1896 BKL
BKL00035273
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Westchester1887 BKL
BKL00099398
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Westchester1888 BKL
BKL00035274
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)
Westchester1896 BKL
BKL00035267
Herbarium Name Used: Asarum canadense
  2/8/2012 - BKL (Steve Glenn)

Synonyms

SynonymFull CitationBasionymTypeNotes
Asarum acuminatum Asarum acuminatum (Ashe) E.P. Bicknell, Ill. Fl. N. U.S. 3: 513. 1898.Asarum canadense Linnaeus var. acuminatum Ashe, Bot. Contr. My Herb. 1: 2. 1897.  
Asarum canadense var. acuminatum Asarum canadense Linnaeus var. acuminatum Ashe, Bot. Contr. My Herb. 1: 2. 1897.   
Asarum canadense var. ambiguum Asarum canadense Linnaeus var. ambiguum (E.P. Bicknell) Farwell, Rep. Michigan Acad. Sci. 20: 173. 1918.Asarum reflexum var. ambiguum E.P. Bicknell, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 24: 535. 1897.  
Asarum canadense var. reflexum Asarum canadense Linnaeus var. reflexum (E.P. Bicknell) B.L. Robbinson., Rhodora 10: 32. 1908.Asarum reflexum E.P. Bicknell, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 24: 533. 1897.  
Asarum reflexum Asarum reflexum E.P. Bicknell, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 24: 533. 1897.